There is increasing evidence that social protection programmes, including cash transfers, have positive impacts on human development and well-being, including that of adolescents. However, to date adolescence (10–19 years) has been underprioritised by programme designers compared to early childhood. In particular, given the increasing salience of gender norms over the course of adolescence, too little attention has been paid to the ways in which age- and gender-related vulnerabilities intersect to limit girls’ and boys’ multidimensional capabilities.
In Brazil, smallholder farmers account for around 70 per cent of the food market for some crops. Family farming can contribute to reducing poverty and improving food security. Women are important actors in agriculture and rural development, accounting for 43 per cent of the total workforce in rural areas of developing countries (FAO 2015) and approximately 30 per cent of the total rural workforce in Brazil (IBGE 2006).
Agenda 2030 echoes calls for the targeted use of government funds for gender equality and women’s rights made over twenty years ago in the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Yet the relationship between gendered inequalities and public spending continues to receive insufficient attention and commitment from governments.
There is broad-based agreement today that universal social protection systems are a desirable goal. For gender equality advocates, it is paramount to take advantage of this momentum to ensure that such systems benefit women by responding to their rights and needs.