The European Union Social Protection Systems (EU-SPS) project has recently published a report on the future of social protection in six countries in East Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia (OECD 2017).1 The report examines key demographic, economic, social and environmental trends that are likely to affect the demand for social protection between now and 2065, a timeframe aligned to the African Union’s Agenda 2063—its vision for the future of the continent in which social protection has a key role to play.
Inclusive development is the seductive idea that a more dynamic and productive economy can go hand in hand with reduced inequality and exclusion. This requires crafting together different values and realities, through cooperation and negotiation between different economic and social interests. This is particularly difficult in South Africa (SA) because of the deep-seated social divisions and stagnant economy. The dominant discourses emphasise either ‘growth and redistribution’ or ‘radical economic transformation’. Both are driven from above, by national government.