Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes are social protection programmes designed to address vulnerability, poverty and human capital development in many developing countries. However, the effects of CCTs on poverty reduction and human capital development vary across regions and countries.
This paper updates the Social Risk Management (SRM) conceptual framework; the foundation of the World Bank’s first Social Protection Sector Strategy. SRM 2.0 addresses the increasingly risky and uncertain world; with opportunities and outcomes driven by possible disruptions from technology, markets, climate change, etc. SRM 2.0 is a spatial assets and livelihoods approach to household well-being featuring a risk chain covering all households across the lifecycle and for both positive and negative events. Key findings: Location and context are critical for household choice
Namibia is an upper middle-income country with one of the most comprehensive social protection systems in Africa. It provides cash transfers and complementary social assistance to a range of vulnerable groups including children, the elderly and people with disabilities, at a cost equivalent to 4.5% of GDP in 2016/17. Public-sector workers are well covered by social insurance, although there are gaps in provision for the private sector.
Viet Nam has made significant progress in expanding social insurance coverage in recent years. However, coverage amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) remains very low and very few workers in this sector are expected to receive a pension in retirement. Drawing on two datasets for SMEs in Viet Nam, this paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by examining the characteristics of enterprises that are enrolled and those that opt out, and it identifies possible barriers to enrolment, such as high contribution rates.
This paper assesses the effects on poverty and inequality of the alternative targeting approaches that Zambia’s Social Cash Transfer programme could take as its expansion continues during the period of the country’s Seventh National Development Plan (2017–21). It further assesses the domestic financing needs associated with alternative approaches. The Zambian government introduced support based on giving actual cash through social cash transfers aimed at reducing poverty and vulnerability in a sustainable and cost-effective way.
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This brief explores the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) Technical Assistance (TA) Social Protection Sector Development Program in Indonesia, which aimed at supporting government efforts in alleviating the socioeconomic distress caused by the 1997 Asian economic crisis, while launching sector reforms to strengthen social services delivery.
The methods used to identify beneficiaries of programmes aiming to address persistent poverty and shocks are subject to frequent policy debates. Relying on panel data from Niger, this paper analyses the performance of different targeting methods that are widely used by development and humanitarian actors and explores how they can be applied as part of an adaptive social protection (ASP) system. The methods include proxy-means testing (PMT), household economy analysis (HEA), geographical targeting, and combined methods.
The Republic of Iraq shares its largest land borders with Iran, Syria and Saudi Arabia. Of its total 37.2 million inhabitants, 5.7 million (15.4 per cent) are children under the age of 5, and 17.46 million (46 per cent) are below the age of 18. Despite being classified as an upper-middle-income country, Iraq’s Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.649 is below the regional average for the Middle East (0.704) and ranks 121st of 188 countries.