Ultra-poverty

"This is another term for extreme poverty. It is sometimes specifically used to refer to those who spend more than 80 per cent of their income on food but obtain less than 80 per cent of their food energy needs. The low food intake of this particular group will affect their productivity and ability to get out of poverty (DFID 2001:186).". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/...

Unconditional cash transfers

"Grants paid to beneficiaries without the beneficiary having to do anything specific to receive the benefit.” Source : European Commission Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection . 2013. "The Use of Cash and Vouchers in Humanitarian Crises: DG ECHO funding guidelines". Ref. Ares 317021 . ECHO. < https://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/policies/sectoral/ECHO_Cash_Vouchers_Guidelines.pdf >. Accessed 8 April 2020.

Unconditional in-kind transfers

“Unconditional in-kind transfers (UITs) distribute food, vouchers, or other in-kind transfers without any form of conditionality or co-responsibility. Examples include the provision of fortified food supplements for malnourished pregnant women and children.” Source : World Bank and International Monetary Fund. 2015. "Global Monitoring Report 2014/2015: Ending Poverty and Sharing Prosperity". World Bank, Washington, DC. < https://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/gmr/gmr2014/...

Undercoverage

“Undercoverage is the proportion of poor households that are not included in the program (errors of exclusion).” See also: Errors of exclusion Source : Coady, D. Grosh, M. and Hoddinot, J. 2004. "Targeting of Transfers in Developing Countries: Review of Lessons and Experience". Regional and Sectorial Studies 30230 . World Bank, Washington, DC. < http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/464231468779449856/pdf/302300PAPER0Targeting0of0transfers.pdf > Accessed 8 April 2020.

Undernourishment

"A state, lasting for at least one year, of inability to acquire enough food, defined as a level of food intake insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements. For the purposes of this report, hunger was defined as being synonymous with chronic undernourishment." Source : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2015. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World". FAO. < http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4646e.pdf> . Accessed 8 April 2020.

Undernutrition

"The outcome of undernourishment, and/or poor absorption and/or poor biological use of nutrients consumed as a result of repeated infectious disease. It includes being underweight for one’s age, too short for one’s age (stunted), dangerously thin for one’s height (wasted) and deficient in vitamins and minerals (micronutrient malnutrition)." Source : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2015. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World". FAO. < http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4646e...

Unemployed person

"The "unemployed" comprise all people above a specified age who, during the reference period, were: "without work", that is, were not in paid employment or self-employment; "currently available for work", that is, were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; or "seeking work", that is, had taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment. The specific steps may include the person registering at a public or private...

Unemployment assistance (UA)

"Payments of UA benefits are intended to eliminate or reduce poverty among low income families where unemployment occurs. (…) UA is paid to only to families with unemployment whose income and assets fall below the thresholds specified by a means test.” Source : Vroman, W. 2002. "Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Assistance: A Comparison". SP Discussion Paper, No. 0203. World Bank, Washington, DC. < documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2002/04/1771837/unemployment-insurance-unemployment-...

Unemployment insurance (UI)

“Payments of UI benefits are intended to smooth income by replacing a portion of an eligible worker’s lost wages attributable to unemployment (…) Recipients of UI can have high income since payments are made to partially offset the earnings losses experienced by the individual regardless of total family income.” Source : Vroman, W. 2002 . "Unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance: a comparison". SP Discussion Paper, No. 0302. World Bank, Washington, DC. < http://documents.worldbank...

Unemployment protection programmes

“Unemployment protection programmes provide compensation for the loss of income resulting from involuntary unemployment. As such, these programmes act as a source of income replacement during periods of economic adjustment. Less than 80 countries worldwide have unemployment programmes; these are mostly social insurance programmes. Generally, the period of entitlement to social insurance benefits is limited and the benefit amount is linked to the insured's pre-employment earnings level. In the...