Stigma

"Stigma is derived from a Greek word meaning a mark or stain, and it refers to beliefs and/or attitudes. Stigma can be described as a dynamic process of devaluation that significantly discredits an individual in the eyes of others, such as when certain attributes are seized upon within particular cultures or settings and defined as discreditable or unworthy. When stigma is acted upon, the result is discrimination". Stigma : Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2015. "UNAIDS Terminology...

Stochastic shocks

"Stochastic shocks: shocks originating from outside the community, which affect all people in the same locality, such as natural disasters or economic crises". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/publication_files/CPR1_appendices.pdf >. Accessed 14 May 2020.

Strategic gender needs

"Requirements of women and men to improve their position or status. Addressing these needs allow people to have control over their lives beyond socially-defined restrictive roles. Strategic gender needs for women might include land rights, more decision-making power, equal pay and greater access to credit. Practical gender needs, by comparison, are those needs required to overcome development shortcomings, that are gender-specific but do not challenge gender roles, such as access to healthcare...

Structural unemployment

"Structural unemployment refers to a situation where there is a mismatch between jobs offered and jobs needed, caused by a disparity between skill levels, geographical location, sectoral shifts in the production pattern of a country and other similar structural factors. The most common prescription for structural unemployment is policies and interventions that address the relevant structural constraint, such as skills development, labour mobility and proper dissemination of information in the...

Stunting

"Low height for age, reflecting a sustained past episode or episodes of undernutrition (FAO)". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/publication_files/CPR1_appendices.pdf >. Accessed 14 May 2020.

Subsidies

“Many governments use price and tax subsidization to meet social protection objectives in lieu of, or in addition to, direct income transfers. (…) The most common form of price subsidy is a direct, untargeted subsidy. However, various other means may be used to deliver price subsidies as well. Untargeted indirect price subsidies, exemptions on value added or other sales taxes, dual exchange rates, export taxes, producer quotas, subsidies on transport and storage, and domestic sales of a...

Sustainable development

"There are many definitions of sustainable development, including this landmark one which first appeared in the 1987 United Nations Brundtland Report: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document refers to the “interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars” of sustainable development as economic development, social development,...

Sustainable food system

“A sustainable food system (SFS) is a food system that delivers food security and nutrition for all in such a way that the economic, social and environmental bases to generate food security and nutrition for future generations are not compromised. This means that: – It is profitable throughout (economic sustainability); – It has broad-based benefits for society (social sustainability); and – It has a positive or neutral impact on the natural environment (environmental sustainability).” Source...

Sustainable livelihood programmes

“A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. Livelihoods are therefore affected by external events which can increase their resilience and consequently reduce their vulnerability.” Source : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. N.d. “Tool for designing, monitoring and evaluating land administration...