Social Protection Systems

“Social protection systems are defined differently by different agencies. The World Bank strategy refers to them as “portfolios of coherent programmes that can talk to each other, often share common administrative sub-systems, and work together to deliver resilience, equity and opportunity.” UNICEF defines integration as “a network of responses, that take a multi-pronged and coordinated approach to the multiple and compounding vulnerabilities faced by children and their families.” ” Source :...

Social registries

"Succinctly, Social Registries are information systems that support outreach, intake, registration, and determination of potential eligibility for one or more social programs. They have both a social policy role, as inclusion systems, and an operational role, as information systems. (...) In terms of their core social policy function, Social Registries are inclusion systems. 6 They provide a “gateway” for people (individuals, families) to register and be considered for potential inclusion in...

Social Risk Management

"The basic thrust of the SRM framework is based on two important assessments: (i) The poor are typically most exposed to diverse risks ranging from natural (such as earthquake and flooding) to manmade (such as war and inflation), from health (such as illness) to political risks (such as discrimination), and (ii) the poor have the fewest instruments to deal with these risks (such as access to government provided income support and market-based instruments like insurance). These assessments have...

Social safety nets

“They are programs comprising of non-contributory transfers in cash or in-kind, designed to provide regular and predictable support to poor and vulnerable people. Social safety nets, which are also known as ‘social assistance’ or ‘social transfers,’ are part of broader social protection systems (…) they help alleviate poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition; they contribute to reducing inequality and boosting shared prosperity; they support households in managing risks and cope with shocks;...

Social security

“The protection which society provides for its members, through a series of public measures, against the economic and social distress that otherwise will be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age, and death, and also including the provision of medical care and provision of subsidies for families and children. Sometimes social security is seen as a select, and thus non-universal,...

Social security staircase

"ILO’s approach for the extension of effective social security coverage, is as follows: - The horizontal dimension should consist of the rapid implementation of national social protection floors, i.e. a minimum package of transfers, rights, and entitlements that provide access to essential medical care and sufficient income to all those in need of such protection. - The vertical dimension should seek to provide higher levels of social security at least in line with the coverage and benefit...

Social services

“(…) at the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen, world leaders agreed that international assistance should be targeted towards the basic social services - primary health care, basic education, clean water and proper sanitation”. Source : United Nations Children’s Fund. N.d. “Basic social services”. UNICEF. < https://www.unicef-irc.org/research/basic-social-services/ >. Accessed 30 April 2020. “Social services are organised in different ways across Europe with different roles...

Social transfers

“Social transfers can take a variety of forms and would normally be provided by the state to those citizens regarded as living in conditions of long-term extreme poverty or vulnerability (…) Social transfers can be provided as cash, in-kind (often as food) or as vouchers". Source : Department for International Development. 2005. "Social transfers and chronic poverty: emerging evidence and the challenge ahead". Department for International Development. < https://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/...

Sovereign Wealth Funds

"SWFs are defined as special purpose investment funds or arrangements, owned by the general government. Created by the general government for macroeconomic purposes, SWFs hold, manage, or administer assets to achieve financial objectives, and employ a set of investment strategies which include investing in foreign financial assets. The SWFs are commonly established out of balance of payments surpluses, official foreign currency operations, the proceeds of privatizations, fiscal surpluses, and/...

Stigma

"Stigma is derived from a Greek word meaning a mark or stain, and it refers to beliefs and/or attitudes. Stigma can be described as a dynamic process of devaluation that significantly discredits an individual in the eyes of others, such as when certain attributes are seized upon within particular cultures or settings and defined as discreditable or unworthy. When stigma is acted upon, the result is discrimination". Stigma : Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2015. "UNAIDS Terminology...