Idiosyncratic risks

"The capacity of individuals, households and communities to handle risk and the appropriate risk management instrument to be applied depend on the characteristics of risks: their sources, correlation, frequency and intensity. The sources of risk may be natural (for example, floods) or the result of human activity (for example, inflation resulting from economic policy); risks can be uncorrelated (idiosyncratic) or correlated among individuals (covariant), over time (repeated) or with other risks...

In-kind transfers

“In-kind transfers provide non-cash benefits to eligible and registered beneficiaries. These are usually in the form of a commodity good.” See also: Social Assistance Source: Britto, P. et al . 2013. "Social Protection Programs and Early Childhood Development: Unexplored Potential". Australia: Plan International. < >. Accessed 12 June 2020.

Inclusive policies

"Policies which acknowledge that socially excluded, poor or vulnerable people are not a homogeneous group and that disabled people have a right to be included in poverty alleviation and development work". Source : Yeo, R. 2001. "Chronic Poverty and Disability". Background Paper Number 4 . Chronic Poverty Research Centre. <> . Accessed 27 October 2020.

Income distribution

"The allocation of national income between persons or households; an indicator of economic and social inequality where some people have more than others". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < . Accessed 14 May 2020.

Income generating activities

"The aim of an IGA (Income Generating Activities) is to produce for the market and furthermore it can be called micro or small-scale enterprise, whether it is managed at individual or group level. One of the main criteria to choose an IGA should be its profitability. (...) IGAs can be seen as the initiation phase in the progression to small business development. It is difficult to make the transition from being unemployed and lacking in skills to being self-employed and capable of managing a...

Income poverty

"Poverty defined with respect to a money-based poverty line for income or expenditure. The distinction is made between this and other concepts that emphasise the many dimensions of poverty". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2009. "The Chronic Poverty Report 2008-09: Escaping Poverty Traps". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < >. Accessed 27 October 2020.

Income shocks

Income shocks “(…) can affect a household’s welfare by negatively impacting on household income, existing household wealth and the health of household members. (…) We categorize shocks as either idiosyncratic or spatially covariant (for example, a flood which affects all households in a particular location), with the former insurable in formal financial markets, and the latter non-insurable, thereby creating a theoretical motive for precautionary saving”. Source: Wainwright, F. and Newman, C...


“Economic inequality refers to how economic variables are distributed—among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. Development theory has largely been concerned with inequalities in standards of living, such as inequalities in income/wealth, education, health, and nutrition”. Source: UN. 2015. "Development Issues No. 1: Concepts of Inequality". < >. Accessed 12 June 2020.

Infant Mortality Rate

"Statistical summary rate based on the number of infant deaths occurring during the same period of time, usually a calendar year, usually given in relation to 1 000 live births occurring among the population during the same year". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < . Accessed 14 May 2020.

Informal sector

"The term informal sector refers to employment and production that takes place in small and/or unregistered enterprises. It includes self-employment in informal enterprises (small and unregistered enterprises) and wage employment in informal jobs (unregulated and unprotected jobs) for informal enterprises, formal enterprises, households or for no fixed employer". Source : United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. n.d. "Gender Equality Glossary." UN Women. <...