"The early childhood period is the basis for later success in life. It is the time when a child’s brain develops at a rapid rate creating plenty of opportunities for children’s learning and development. A child can have a good start in life when he/she grows up in a nurturing and stimulating environment that meets his/her essential needs such as nutrition, health, and safety, as well as the psychological, social, spiritual, and intellectual needs. This also means that the child has a greater...
“Education comprises both essential learning tools (such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, and problem solving) and the basic learning content (such as knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes) required by human beings to be able to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning. Education is also a social experience through which...
“School fee waiver should enable those who cannot afford to pay for their education to have access to schooling” Source: Esme Kadzamira, Pauline Rose (2003). “ Can free primary education meet the needs of the poor?: evidence from Malawi “International Journal of Educational Development , 23, 501–516 (accessed 19 June 2018)
"Effectiveness relates to how well outputs are converted to outcomes and impacts (e.g. reduction in poverty gap and inequality, improved nutrition, reduction in school dropout, increased use of health services, asset accumulation by the poor, increased smallholder productivity, social cohesion) (White et al. 2015)."
“Electricity subsidies (…) are financial subsidies that result from below-cost pricing, with cost measured as accounting costs. Subsidies are measured as the difference between the price of electricity paid by consumers and the average cost of supply.” Source: Komives, K. et al (2009). ‘ Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor ’, World Bank Working Paper, No. 160 (accessed 19 June 2018).
Energy Subsidies can be defined “as any government action that concerns primarily the energy sector that lowers the cost of energy production, raises the price received by energy producers or lowers the price paid by energy consumers.” Source: International Energy Agency (2015). ‘ Carrots and Sticks: Taxing and Subsidising Energy ’, IEA (accessed 19 June 2018).
“Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.” Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007. ' Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report ', IPCC (accessed 19 June 2018)
“Exclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of people in poverty who are omitted from a social transfer programme.” See also: Errors of Inclusion Source: Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘ Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms ’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 19 June 2018).
“Inclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of a programme’s beneficiaries who receive transfers despite not being poor.” See also: Errors of Exclusion Source: Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘ Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms ’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 19 June 2018).