Health insurance

“Financial protection against the health care costs arising from disease or accidental bodily injury. Such insurance usually covers all or part of the costs of treating the disease or injury. Insurance may be obtained on either an individual or a group basis.” Source: Hsiao, W. et al . 1997. "Glossary" in: Financing health care : issues and options for China (English) . Washington, DC : The World Bank. < http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/793551468746816919/pdf/multi0page.pdf >...

HIV

“The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets cells of the immune system, called CD4 cells, which help the body respond to infection. Within the CD4 cell the HIV replicates and in turn damages and destroys the cel.l Without effective treatment, using a combination of antiretroviral drugs, the immune system will become weakened to the point that it can no longer fight infection and disease.” Source: WHO. 2017. "What is HIV?". World Health Organization Website. < https://www.who.int/news-...

HIV-sensitive social protection

"Social protection measures that help mitigate the significant social and economic impacts of HIV on households and individuals, and increase access to prevention, treatment, care, and support for people affected by and vulnerable to HIV. HIV-sensitive social protection covers people who are at risk of HIV infection or susceptible to the consequences of HIV. It comprises the following interventions: Financial protection through transfer of cash, food, and other items for people affected by and...

Horizontal expansion

"Social assistance programmes can temporarily include new, crisis-affected beneficiaries in an existing social protection programme. This option may involve extending the programme to more people in the same geographical area or an extension of the programme’s geographical coverage to areas affected by the crises but not in the footprint of the ‘regular’ programme. The expansion of the regular programme into new territories can be achieved through either a pre-screening of potential...

Household life-cycle

"The sequence of events (birth, death, marriage, moving together or away from other household members) which characterise the formation, growth and disappearance of a household. The household’s likelihood of being in poverty is related to its position in the household life cycle". Source : Chronic Poverty Research Centre. 2005. "Chronic Poverty Report 2004-05". Chronic Poverty Research Centre. < http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/publication_files/CPR1_appendices.pdf >. Accessed 27...

Housing subsidies

Housing subsidies are mainly divided in two kinds: supply-side and demand-side subsidies. “Traditional supply-side housing programs include government-built public housing and other so-called “bricks and mortar” subsidies given to the producers of housing, including, for example, subsidized financing, contributions of land and materials, and tax credits and deductions.” Demand-side subsidies, on the other hand, consist mainly of “capital grants and allowances targeted to poor households (…) In...

Human capital

“"(T)he skills the labor force possesses and is regarded as a resource or asset." It encompasses the notion that there are investments in people (e.g., education, training, health) and that these investments increase an individual’s productivity.” Source: Goldin, C. 2014. ‘"Human Capital" in: Handbook of Cliometrics. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag . < https://scholar.harvard.edu/goldin/publications/human-capital >. Accessed 12 June 2020.

Human Development Index (HDI)

"The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes. These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of average...

Human Rights

“Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law...

Human rights-based approach (HRBA)

"A human rights-based approach entails consciously and systematically paying attention to human rights in all aspects of program development. A HRBA is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. The objective of the HRBA is to empower people (rights-holders) to realize their rights and strengthen the State (duty-bearers) to comply with their...