Leveraging Social Protection to Support Women’s and Girls’ Climate Resilience in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

With growing recognition that social protection may help promote women’s and girls’ (WGs’) climate resilience in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), stakeholder interest has grown in developing social protection programs that are responsive to both climate risks and gender inequality. However, little is known about effective approaches. We develop a conceptual framework for how social assistance (the most prevalent type of social protection in LMICs) can operate through multiple pathways to reduce WGs’ vulnerability, strengthening their ability to respond to climate hazards and reducing adverse impacts on their well-being. We then assess existing evidence and summarize findings around a key knowledge gap in the framework: how social assistance affects WGs’ coping, adaptive, and mitigative responses to climate hazards and the implications for their well-being. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on program design features that may more effectively promote WGs’ climate resilience and highlight important directions for future research to guide practice.