The Distributional Impacts of Public Expenditure in Ethiopia: A Gender-Lens Analysis

This study investigates the gendered distributional impacts of public expenditure policy using survey and administrative data from Ethiopia. It specifically assesses the progressivity and pro-poorness and poverty, and inequality impact of cash and in-kind transfers, through a gender-lens analysis. The study employs an expenditure incidence analysis approach based on the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology to determine whether government expenditures redistribute resources to the poor. The findings of the study provide evidence that government social spending has significant welfare impacts, although some of the social services are poorly targeted. Among the public spending instruments studied, primary education spending and productive safety net programme (PSNP) transfers tend to be the most progressive, and tertiary education spending appears to be the least progressive. The benefits associated with public health spending are also less progressive. The results have important policy implications for public spending policy reforms, poverty reduction and income redistribution.