Access to essential services for people on low incomes in Europe: An analysis of policies in 35 countries

This ESPN report examines access to six essential services (water, sanitation, energy, transport, financial services and digital communications) by people on low incomes in the 27 EU countries and in 8 non-EU countries. It shows that more needs to be done at national and EU level to guarantee accessible, available and affordable good-quality essential services to all in line with the European Pillar of Social Rights, and makes several recommendations to achieve this. The report also highlights the importance of ensuring that support measures are backed up by comprehensive policy frameworks as well as effective monitoring, evaluation and governance mechanisms.