Social security and welfare of migrant workers in India: a situational analysis

In India as per the Census 2011 around 90% of the workforce is in the unorganized sector and most of them are the migrant workers. Census 2011 estimates that 456 million migrants exist in the country out of which 41.4 million migrant workers work as the reason for migration. The Labour migration is an important factor in these changing demographics in India. Migration is not new in India whether it is Internal or international. But unfortunately, there is no integrated and inclusive policy for addressing the issues of migrant workers especially security and welfare. However, the COVID-19 and its effects on migrant workers across the country have stressed the realization of the migrants and their contribution to the Indian economy. Social security and welfare of this productive population of the country is totally neglected especially during pandemic as well. Absence of basic amenities and lack of social security of migrant workers are the serious concerns about their vulnerability. There is Lack of awareness about the existing legislative, welfare and social security measures among the migrant workers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take a serious call on the issues and welfare of migrant workers since they are major contributors for the nation’s development. This manuscript is based on secondary data, analyse the situation of migrant workers and examines the government initiatives in terms of social security and welfare programmes and elaborates the roles of local stakeholders in addressing the issues of social security and welfare of the migrant workers in the constitutional framework.