Responding to shocks and vulnerabilities by social protection adaptive systems in Mali

Mali is a low-income, fragile country that has suffered extraordinary setbacks in in the last decade. It is a landlocked economy which is highly dependent on agriculture with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US$ 875 (current USD) in 2019. Mali is in the lower 15th percentile of the world’s income distribution. Around 44 percent of the population live in poverty. It is also a fragile state that has witnessed persistent conflict with political coups, social tensions, insecurity and violence. The coup in 2012 has led to continued violence and displacement, leaving 8.7 million people more than 45 percent of the population living in crisis affected areas. It was followed by the military coup in August 2020 which has brought in a transitional civil government. The increasingly fragile security situation has also led to spikes in security expenditure, crowding out spending on public services and investment.