Research Directions on Social Protection in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

To help diagnose the evidence gaps and provide a foundation and guide for our funding competitions, this evidence review aims to review and synthesize the literature on social protection, providing insight into what we know and what we do not know. As such, while there is a broad research base on social protection—spanning many countries, contexts, and research methods—given the mandate of the Initiative to fund new randomized evaluations, we focus much of our review (although not exclusively) on causal, quantitative studies in low- and middle-income countries. It is important to note that we broaden the evidence review beyond randomized trials evidence to quasi-experimental evidence to ensure that the randomized trials are filling gaps in causal evidence across a range of causal empirical methodologies.