Measuring the Contribution of International Remittances to Household Expenditures and Economic Output: A Micro–Macro Analysis for the Philippines

It finds that remittance-driven household expenditures and investments contributed 3.5% of the country’s total output, 3.4% of the gross domestic product, and 3.7% of the total employment in 2018. Industries that received the bulk of remittances in the form of final consumption are manufacturing, agriculture, and wholesale and retail trade.