2022
Language:
English

Inclusive social security and the social contract: overcoming instability and building trust in the MENA region

The roots of the crises may be traced back to the failure of government to protect the wellbeing of citizens in the face of growing economic discontent, contributing to the breakdown of the national social contract.6 This discontent was likely exacerbated by the removal of vital subsidies – most notably, the Government removed a fuel subsidy overnight in 2008, raising the price of diesel (an impor. [...] By the end of July 2011, the protests that initially broke out in March had developed into a full-scale civil insurgency and the government suspended the payment of a third payment.10 The removal of universal subsidies in 2008 and the introduction of small and narrowly targeted cash transfers, that were entirely inappropriate for the universal nature of the problem, is likely to have poured petrol. [...] 20 4 The role of weak social security in eroding social contracts and exacerbating political unrest in the MENA 4 The role of weak social security in eroding social contracts and exacerbating political unrest in the MENA region Despite a growing body of evidence that inclusive social security is central to building the social contracts required to underpin stable and prosperous nations, social sec. [...] 4.2 The failure of social security systems to incorporate the “missing middle” and the dangers of poverty targeting The outbreak of unrest in 2011, and its re-emergence since, can be partly explained by the failure of social security systems in the region. [...] (2022); World Bank, (2015) 27 4 The role of weak social security in eroding social contracts and exacerbating political unrest in the MENA President Asaad’s regime to protect the wellbeing of citizens in the face of growing economic discontent, contributing to the breakdown of the national social contract.74 In Syria, as part of a series of reforms undertaken between 2000-10 to transition from a c.