Exploring Spatial Patterns, and Identifying Factors Associated with Insufficient Cash or Food Received from a Productive Safety Net Program among Eligible Households in Ethiopia: A spatial and multilevel analysis as an input for international food aid pro

In low-income countries, households’ food insecurity and the undernutrition of children are the main health problems. Ethiopia is vulnerable to food insecurity and undernutrition among children because its agricultural production system is traditional. Hence, the productive safety net program (PSNP) is implemented as a social protection system to combat food insecurity and enhance agricultural productivity by providing cash or food assistance to eligible households. So, this study aimed to explore spatial patterns of households’ insufficient cash or food receiving from PSNP, and identify its associated factors in Ethiopia.