An Evaluation of the Turkish General Health Insurance within the Scope of the Healthcare Reform

In line with the recommendations of the World Bank, the Health Transformation Program [Sağlıkta Dönüşüm Programı] was accepted in Türkiye in 2003. Within this scope, reform movements in healthcare delivery were initiated. A universal health insurance model (named general health insurance) was accepted with the Social Insurance and General Health Insurance Act No. 5510 [5510 sayılı Sosyal Sigortalar ve Genel Sağlık Sigortası Kanunu] adopted in 2006. General health insurance, which came into effect gradually since 2008, fundamentally changed the system of benefiting from health services, which had been built as employment-oriented until then. General health insurance aimed to cover not only those included by social insurance but also all citizens or foreigners residing in Türkiye. In the general health insurance system, the principle of purchasing health services from health service providers (providing the financing of health services) has been adopted instead of providing them by the Social Security Institution [Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu]. This study aims to evaluate the healthcare reform carried out in Türkiye through general health insurance. Therefore, the study first includes the healthcare (and social security) reform in Türkiye and then explains the implementation of general health insurance. Afterward, the study evaluates whether general health insurance meets the healthcare reform targets today and determines the problematic aspects of general health insurance.