The Long-run and Gender-equalizing Impacts of Schooling Policies

It examines long-term impacts of a mandatory educational program conducted by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietminh) in their occupied areas during the First Indochina War. Estimation results suggest that school-age children who were exposed to the program obtained significantly higher levels of education, more than half a century later, than their peers who were residing in French-occupied areas. The impacts are statistically significant for school-age girls and not for school-age boys. Interestingly, ts also finds some long-term spillover impacts of education: impacted girls enjoyed higher household living standards, had more educated and healthier spouses, and raised more educated children. It discusses a number of robustness checks and extensions that support these findings.