Since April 2015, a political crisis has claimed over 500 lives, displaced 415,854 people (of which 54.6% are children) and led to an economic slowdown and the collapse of social service delivery systems. In June 2017, the International Organization for Migration registered 209,202 internally displaced persons, of which 58% are children, in 13 provinces. A cholera outbreak in Cibitoke Province in December 2016 resulted in 169 cases, 26% of whom were children under 5. The crisis has increased Burundi’s susceptibility to outbreaks due to deteriorating WASH services and lack of access to safe and potable water, especially in the provinces bordering Lake Tanganyika, the DRC and Tanzania. The Ministry of Health reported 8 million cases of malaria in 2016, and 4,212,300 cases with 1,891 deaths in just the first 24 weeks of 2017.

Technical reports