Turkey is an upper middle-income country and home to the largest refugee population in the world; over 3.1 million Syrians live under temporary protection, almost half of whom (nearly 1.4 million) are children. Only around 8% of Syrian refugees live in 22 official camps in provinces  along the Syrian border while the remaining 92% reside in host communities – mostly in the southeast of the country, but also increasingly in Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara and other large cities in the north and west.  The Turkish Government has shouldered the bulk of the significant financial burden of responding to the Syria crisis, spending more than US$30 billion on direct assistance to Syrian refugees in Turkey to date. The current social protection system in Turkey is fragmented, with social security covering those in formal employment, and social assistance covering the rest via the Social Assistance General Directorate of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies.

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