Until the end of the 19th century, Brazilian social protection focused on charitable action, such as the religious hospitals (“Santas Casas”) attending to the needs of the sick poor, and treasuryfinanced benefits for key groups at the service of the State, such as civil servants and the military. When the agriculture export-oriented economy triggered a growth of the urban economy based on wage work in the early 20th century, as in several other pioneer countries in Latin America, Brazil introduced contributory social security schemes for urban workers.

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This paper assesses developments in the provision of formal social protection in Africa. Formal social protection is defined to include actions taken by the public sector (alone or in conjunction with other parties such as non-governmental organisations and donors) and private sector arrangements that have legal backing. The focus of the discussion will be on the provision of formal social protection by the state. Social protection in many African countries is not new. The development of formal social protection in several of these countries can be delineated into three phases.

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We provide evidence on the distribution of school attendance and educational attainment across African countries, focusing on the correlation with literacy rates in the population, level of resources and country institutional features. We also estimate sample correlations between enrolment and macro-aggregates, related to resources (GDP per capita, student/teacher ratio), computing some counterfactuals. We then move to micro-data, selecting three African countries as representative examples of low (Mauritania), middle (Uganda) and high (Ghana) educational attainment.

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In this paper, I first assess Africa’s progress towards achieving the fi rst six Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), focusing on the main target indicators. Second, using recent African data on MDG indicators and an index of social protection, and after controlling for other relevant variables, I examine the relationship between social protection and various MDG indicators. I comment on the results of the analysis and provide a discussion of some areas in which African countries may need to place a greater emphasis on social protection.

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This report is part of a series of national case studies aimed at disseminating knowledge on the current status of social protection systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries, and at discussing their main challenges in terms of realizing of the economic and social rights of the population and achieving key development goals, such as combating poverty and hunger. The report highlights the need for innovation in designing policies and instruments, as well as in management, in order to build comprehensive systems that provide inclusive social protection.

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Over the last several years, the Government of Togo has made important advances in the area of social protection. Although Togo has had limited social insurance and social assistance programs, the economic shock and natural disasters starting in 2008 brought the need for better mechanisms of social protection to the fore. The Government response has focused on measures to address the needs of the affected populations, while building the analytical base for developing a national social protection policy and strategy.

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The economic updates aim to share knowledge and stimulate debate among those interested in improving the economic management of Cameroon and unleashing its enormous potential. The notes thereby offer another voice on economic issues in Cameroon, and an additional platform for engagement, learning and change. Cameroon's overall poverty rate has not declined and has even increased in the poorest regions. Food security is also problematic in those regions.

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Purpose: this paper studies the feasibility of a participatory approach in providing health-care services. It focuses on a concrete case study in rural Congo – Brazzaville (the village Moubangou, district of Kimongo). It assesses the real possibilities for rural households to participate in this scheme by analysing what determines whether, and, if so, how, they become eligible for (pre-) financing health-care.

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This report is part of a series of national case studies aimed at disseminating knowledge on the current status of social protection systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries, and at discussing their main challenges in terms of realizing of the economic and social rights of the population and achieving key development goals, such as combating poverty and hunger.

English

This report is part of a series of national case studies aimed at disseminating knowledge on the current status of social protection systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries, and at discussing their main challenges in terms of realizing of the economic and social rights of the population and achieving key development goals, such as combating poverty and hunger.

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