In-kind transfers

“In-kind transfers provide non-cash benefits to eligible and registered beneficiaries. These are usually in the form of a commodity good.” See also: Social Assistance Britto, P. et al (2013). ‘Social Protection Programs and Early Childhood Development: Unexplored Potential’, Child Study Center (accessed 16 June 2015).

Income generating activities

"The aim of an IGA (Income Generating Activities) is to produce for the market and furthermore it can be called micro or small-scale enterprise, whether it is managed at individual or group level. One of the main criteria to choose an IGA should be its profitability. IGAs can be seen as the initiation phase in the progression to small business development. It is difficult to make the transition from being unemployed and lacking in skills to being self-employed and capable of managing a business...


“Economic inequality refers to how economic variables are distributed—among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries. Development theory has largely been concerned with inequalities in standards of living, such as inequalities in income/wealth, education, health, and nutrition”.

Informal Social protection

“Informal social protection encompasses those arrangements and actions taken by an individual or groups of individuals that are not guided by formal legal regulations but are not necessarily contravening these laws and regulations. (…) The organisational infrastructure within which informal social protection is provided is through social networks. (…) Social protection arrangements provided by families can also be classified on the basis of protective, preventive and promotive measures...

Informality in Labour Market

"The informal economy refers to activities and income that are partially or fully outside government regulation, taxation, and observation. The main attraction of the undeclared economy is financial. This type of activity allows employers, paid employees, and the self-employed to increase their take-home earnings or reduce their costs by evading taxation and social contributions. On the one hand, informal employment can provide a cushion for workers who cannot find a job in the formal sector...

Integrated System for Information Management (IMIS)

Integrated System for Information Management (IMIS) “refers to broader system that enables the flow and management of information within and between social protection programs and sometimes beyond to other sectors.” See also: Management Information System (MIS) Commonwealth of Australia (2014). “Single registries and integrated MISs: De-mystifying data and information management concepts”, OPML (accessed 16 June 2015).