“Gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. They are context/ time-specific and changeable”.
“General tax revenue is an important source of financing health care in low, middle and high income countries although government's capacity to raise general revenues is strongly correlated with income. This revenue can come from a variety of taxes - income and profit taxes, value-added and sales taxes, taxes on imports and taxes on profits from the sale of natural resources (minerals, oil, timber – etc). (…) General tax revenue is used to support a wide range of government programs including...
Geographical targeting selects as beneficiaries “only the individuals living in a certain area (…)”. Cirillo, C., Györi, M., Veras Soares, F. (2015, forthcoming). ‘Targeting Social Protection and Agricultural Interventions – The potential for synergies’, IPC-IG Working Paper, forthcoming July 2015.
Governance is “the manner in which the vested authority uses its powers to achieve the institution’s objectives, including its powers to design, implement and innovate the organization’s policies, rules, systems and processes and engage its stakeholders. Good governance implies that the exercise of the vested authority is accountable, transparent, predictable, participative and dynamic.”
“‘Graduation’ refers to the notion that receipt of social transfers should be time-bound, if possible, often with complementary interventions put in place that enable recipients to support themselves at some stage – without needing transfers indefinitely. People who can ‘graduate’ are those who are able to work but require temporary assistance.” See Programme Graduation .
Also known as “Feedback and Complaints mechanisms ”, they “refer to the formal institutions and channels that capture beneficiary complaints or grievances related to targeting, service delivery, or other program functions, and provide redress. Grievance redress is an important element of managing a targeted program, particularly when cash is involved. Grievance redress mechanisms can be important for mitigating inclusion and exclusion errors and for monitoring corruption.” Bassett, L.,...
“Poverty reduction depends on sustained and broad based growth, which in turn requires complementary initiatives that share economic benefits and promote better developmental outcomes for poor and excluded groups”.