Education

“Education comprises both essential learning tools (such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, and problem solving) and the basic learning content (such as knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes) required by human beings to be able to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning.” “Education is also a social experience through which...

Educational fee waiver

“School fee waiver should enable those who cannot afford to pay for their education to have access to schooling”

Electricity subsidies

“Electricity subsidies (…) are financial subsidies that result from below-cost pricing, with cost measured as accounting costs. Subsidies are measured as the difference between the price of electricity paid by consumers and the average cost of supply.” Komives, K. et al (2009). ‘Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor’, World Bank Working Paper, No. 160 (accessed 16 June 2015).

Energy Subsidies

Energy Subsidies can be defined “as any government action that concerns primarily the energy sector that lowers the cost of energy production, raises the price received by energy producers or lowers the price paid by energy consumers.” International Energy Agency (2015). ‘Carrots and Sticks: Taxing and Subsidising Energy’, IEA (accessed 16 June 2015).

Environment and Climate Change

“Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.”

Errors of Exclusion (Targeting)

“Exclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of people in poverty who are omitted from a social transfer programme.” See also: Errors of Inclusion Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 17 June 2015).

Errors of Inclusion (Targeting)

“Inclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of a programme’s beneficiaries who receive transfers despite not being poor.” See also: Errors of Exclusion Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 17 June 2015).