Electricity subsidies

“Electricity subsidies (…) are financial subsidies that result from below-cost pricing, with cost measured as accounting costs. Subsidies are measured as the difference between the price of electricity paid by consumers and the average cost of supply.” Komives, K. et al (2009). ‘Residential Electricity Subsidies in Mexico Exploring Options for Reform and for Enhancing the Impact on the Poor’, World Bank Working Paper, No. 160 (accessed 16 June 2015).

Energy Subsidies

Energy Subsidies can be defined “as any government action that concerns primarily the energy sector that lowers the cost of energy production, raises the price received by energy producers or lowers the price paid by energy consumers.” International Energy Agency (2015). ‘Carrots and Sticks: Taxing and Subsidising Energy’, IEA (accessed 16 June 2015).

Errors of Exclusion (Targeting)

“Exclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of people in poverty who are omitted from a social transfer programme.” See also: Errors of Inclusion Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 17 June 2015).

Errors of Inclusion (Targeting)

“Inclusion error can be quantified as the proportion of a programme’s beneficiaries who receive transfers despite not being poor.” See also: Errors of Exclusion Sabates-Wheeler, R. et al (2014). ‘Targeting social transfer programmes - Comparing design and implementation errors across alternative mechanisms’, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2014/040 (accessed 17 June 2015).