The world of work is evolving rapidly, driven by factors such as demographic change, globalization, technological progress and climate change. People in Europe and Central Asia are deeply concerned by such megatrends that affect their daily working lives. Over the past centuries, the region has been at the heart of industrial revolutions and has produced social patterns that have inspired nations across the world. However, there is a general concern that former economic and social models may no longer work and that, if so, new responses will be needed. The cumulative impact of recent developments has been a highly uncertain and volatile political environment, as evidenced by a number of elections and referendums across the region. Yet they have also triggered serious reflections on the future of the European Union, especially on reinforcing its social dimension. Such changes represent both opportunities and challenges for decent work in Europe and Central Asia. Decent work is a central tenet of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the region needs to identify pathways to provide socially, economically and environmentally sustainable solutions for the future, as outlined in the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement on climate change.