There is an increasing global recognition within governments and partners on the potential linkages between social protection and disaster risk management (DRM) in responding to and mitigating shocks. The experience of Ecuador in the use of social protection in shock response is very rich and innovative and is paving the way to understanding better how to use these systems in emergency response. Ecuador was hit by an earthquake on 16 April 2016 with a magnitude of 7.8. At least 671 people were killed, more than one million were affected, around 50,000 dwellings were permanently or severely damaged, and almost 10,0001 displaced people had to be hosted in official shelters. President Rafael Correa declared a “State of exception” on 17 April. This case study forms part of a wider Study on Shock-Responsive Social Protection in LAC commissioned by the WFP and undertaken by Oxford Policy Management (OPM). The objective of the study is to generate evidence and inform practice for improved emergency preparedness and response in LAC linked to more flexible national social protection systems. The main research question for the study is: What factors enable social protection systems to be more responsive to shocks?