This report critically analyses the current state of CTP in humanitarian aid, and the extent to which commitments have been achieved, in order to provide shared insights that can accelerate progress. The report is structured according to the six Global Objectives set out in CaLP’s Global Framework for Action.This is a consolidated summary of the major commitments and recommendations made to improve CTP. It provides a collective and measurable road map for increasing the scale and quality of CTP: Ensure sufficient funding is available for cash transfer programming Ensure cash is routinely considered, alongside other tools Build sufficient capacity for cash transfer programming Ensure the quality of cash transfer programming Strengthen coordination of cash transfer programming Strengthen the evidence base and invest in innovation The Framework connects policy commitments with operational management, and the contents of the six chapters based on the Global Objectives are closely inter-linked. The full report also includes: Critical Debates: These summarize the views of different actors in six key areas of current debate, without attempting to reconcile them. Case Studies: The report presents eight case studies of CTP in practice. These vividly bring the issues to life. They were selected on the basis of providing significant insights into recent practice, progress and challenges. Priority Actions: These are the next steps required to drive progress most effectively. They are summarised at the end of this Executive Summary. Methodology: The methodology for this report included primary and secondary research. Over 40 key informants were interviewed, and over 200 practitioners and 35 organizations were surveyed. Respondents include humanitarian actors from donors, non-government organizations (NGOs), UN agencies, the Red Cross movement, host governments and the private sector. Secondary research was undertaken drawing on a significant volume of reports, studies, reviews, data analysis and articles. Survey results were triangulated with the interviews, focus group discussions and secondary data. Unless otherwise stated, the findings included in the report reflect common trends and perceptions from across the different data sources. The team worked closely with Development Initiatives to use a comparable methodology for estimating the total volume of CTP during 2016 as they used for 2015, as presented in the publication ‘Counting Cash: Tracking humanitarian expenditure on cash-based programming’.