The Government of Rwanda has made significant efforts to develop its health-care system at the national and community levels, making it possible for most people in the country to access affordable health care. This has helped to achieve near universal health coverage and contributed to making ILO’s Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202) a reality. The social health protection system in Rwanda consists of Community-based Health Insurance (CBHI) schemes for formal and informal sector members, Rwandaise d’Assurance Maladie (RAMA), Military Medical Insurance (MMI), and private insurance schemes. While 96 per cent of people in Rwanda were covered by health insurance in 2011, CBHI had the highest coverage rate at 91 per cent. Started in 1999 as a pilot programme, it has since been rolled out nationwide. CBHI has greatly contributed to improving health standards in Rwanda, including increased life expectancy at birth and reduced child and maternal mortality.