Participatory Action Research (PAR) engages people in communities as agents of change. Traditionally, development project ‘beneficiaries’ have rarely been included in researching issues, finding solutions, designing indicators or measuring change. PAR provides a way of changing this, offering an inclusive community-driven approach to development. It is also an effective way of building participatory learning into organisations supporting development and social change.
As a response to the devastating earthquakes in Nepal in April and May 2015, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) developed and implemented a large-scale Emergency Cash Transfer Programme (ECTP), in collaboration with the Government of Nepal (GoN). UNICEF provided financial and technical support to the GoN to expand the existing social assistance cash transfer programme in earthquake-affected areas in two phases. UNICEF’s financial support to the GoN for both phases of the cash programme amounted to $26 million.
Increasing numbers of development agencies and individual projects espouse objectives of women’s empowerment, yet there has been little systematic work on mechanisms by which interventions can enhance women’s empowerment. This gap exists because of the lack of consensus on indicators as well as the lack of attention paid to measuring the effects of different types of interventions on empowerment.
How can social protection systems be used in disasters, as a complement to, or substitute for, humanitarian assistance? Oxford Policy Management (OPM) led a two-year research project investigating this question, looking at the role of social protection in both mitigating the impact of large-scale shocks and supporting households after a crisis hits. We identify factors that can help and hinder effective disaster response, and consider how social protection actors collaborate with others working in humanitarian assistance and disaster risk management (DRM).
This is the full case study report for Pakistan. It presents an overview of the social protection, disaster risk management and humanitarian systems in Pakistan, and discusses both Pakistan’s flagship social protection programme, the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP), as well as emergency cash transfers provided as disaster response since 2005. A summary briefing note is published separately.
India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) constitutes a major component of the country’s strategy to extend social security, and it provides the legal basis for the biggest employment programme in the world. 2 It can be considered as one of the central pillars of India’s national social protection floor, bearing in mind that it provides temporary employment and a certain level of income security to millions of rural households (ILO, 2014).
The topic will be Social Protection and Disability and It will include talks by leading experts as well as an opportunity for discussion.