In Europe the gender gap, the difference between the gross pensions of men and women over 65 years of age, accounts for about 39%. There are some countries such as Luxemburg, Germany and England which are over 40%, while others such as Estonia, Lithuania and the Slovak Republic are under 10%. Most of the states, however, stand around 30%. This gender difference is certainly the result of inequality of treatment within the labor market, so another factor which is being considered as a proper analysis is the pay gap between men and women, that is, the difference in the hourly wage.


Karolinska Institutet

Karolinska Institutet is one of the world’s foremost medical universities. Their vision is to make a significant contribution to the improvement of human health; their mission is to conduct research and education and to interact with the community.

As a university, KI is Sweden’s single largest centre of medical academic research and offers the country’s widest range of medical courses and programmes.

Since 1901 the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has selected the Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine.


The MoveS network (Free Movement and Social Security Coordination) will organise a seminar in Salzburg (Austria) on 15-16 November 2018.

The seminar is being organised by MoveS in collaboration with its Austrian expert Elias Felten. MoveS is an EC-funded network of independent experts from 32 European countries coordinated by Eftheia and Deloitte.


Scaling and strengthening ECD initiatives through South-South Cooperation

"Catching Hope: Saftey Nets Change Lives in Brazil and Ethiopia". Students. Brazil. Photo: Stephan Bachenheimer/ World Bank (2012). Photo ID: SB-BR001
The ‘ Scaling and strengthening ECD initiatives through South-South Cooperation ’ webinar occurred on 23 August 2018. The webinar aimed to present Early Childhood Development (ECD) initiatives in the Global South, focusing on three South-South Cooperation (SSC) experiences: Cooperation between Brazil and São Tomé and Príncipe to improve quality and access to preschool education; Cuba’s bilateral cooperation with Bolivia and Honduras on Integrated ECD approaches; and Turkmenistan’s cooperation on multi-sectoral early childhood interventions. The webinar was made possible by the combined efforts of the United Nations Children's Fund, (UNICEF) , the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) and the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation (UNOSSC) . The event was...Read more

It is being widely acknowledged that direct cash transfers to social protection beneficiaries may be a far more efficient instrument than indirect subsidies and price controls. However, direct cash benefit transfers cannot be effectively undertaken in absence of appropriate payment systems. This research aimed to study the existing payment systems in Bangladesh, bring out and present relevant lessons from global experience in designing improved payment systems, and recommend an appropriate payment system for Bangladesh.


Afghanistan - Government of Afghanistan

The Government of Afghanistan is comprised of 25 ministries, the Attorney General Office, Central Bank, National Security Directorate and other General and Independent Directorates and Entities, under the chairmanship of the President of the country.


This mapping report gives an overview of nine social protection programmes for people with disabilities. The programmes are all run by governments of low income or lower middle income states in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Many of the programmes have been established within the last decade, for example in Uganda, Kenya and Indonesia, and may still be in trial and error mode. Others are due to be re-designed within the coming year, such as the programmes of Sierra Leone and Bangladesh.


Samuel Hall

Samuel Hall is an independent think tank providing research and strategic services, expert analysis, tailored counsel and access to local knowledge for a diverse array of actors operating in the world’s most challenging environments.


Afeghanistan - Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, MRRD

The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) was established to develop and implement programs promoting responsible social and financial growth in rural areas, primarily in the non-farm sector. It has employees in all 34 Provinces of Afghanistan, and delivers a wide range of programs funded both by the Ministry itself and the International Community.


A project by the Institute for World Society at the University of Bielefeld in cooperation with the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at Bilkent University in Ankara.