Jordan has the second-largest ratio of refugees to citizens in any country in the world and the fifth-largest refugee population in absolute terms. According to the inter-agency Vulnerability Assessment Framework (VAF) for 2015, 86% of Syrian refugees are living below Jordan’s poverty line, and Jordanians living below or near the poverty line face heightened vulnerability due to the Syria crisis. Despite recent challenges, Jordan maintains a relatively high social expenditure. Of the total recurrent expenditure, 13% was allocated to education (3.7% of GDP) and 11% to health (3.2% of GDP), comparable to other upper-middle income countries. Social protection expenditure (excluding pensions, compensation and subsidies) represented 3.3% of recurrent expenditure (0.97% of GDP). Jordan’s social protection programs range from subsidies to cash transfer schemes, tax exemptions and social services.